Throughout the history of this development, excess energy has been confirmed by independent consulting engineers. This inspired the inventors during difficult times. Obviously, the application of conventionally understood physics prohibits the creation of excess energy in such a simple device. The electric input power would normally exceed the heat output of the device due to the inefficiency of the electric drive motor and, in the limit, the device would approach C.O.P. (Coefficient of Performance; output divided by input) = 1.0. With a normal electric water heater, power input is always slightly greater than the heat added to the water, because of unavoidable heat losses. The C.O.P. approaches 1.0, never reaching or exceeding it. With this device, however, a C.O.P greater than 1.0 is routinely obtained. Extensive testing with water and air flow calorimetry has shown a profoundly significant excess-energy anomaly.
S.V.Kozlov. Not proved by science.
“Utility complex of Russia”, # 7 (25), 2006, p.70-73
In spite of the fact that the French engineer Joseph Ranke submitted the request for a “vortex tube” in the end of 1931, the uniform theory explaining processes of additional heat generation does not exist till today. We cooperate with representatives of three scientific schools describing processes, which occur in “vortex heat-generators”: Akimov A.E. - supporter of the “physical vacuum” theory, Fominskiy L.P. - theorist of “cold nuclear synthesis” and Nikitskiy V.P. – follower of the “cavitation heating” theory.
Each of scientists considers correct own theory only. These theories as they are now are scarcely applicable in practice. They have descriptive character, have no the mathematical apparatus allowing to model occurring processes, to calculate “vortex heat-generator” designs and to conduct optimization. Now scientific researches are reduced to the analysis of results of existing thermal installations work only. However, absence of a harmonous theory cannot cancel the real-life fact of effective liquid heating in a “vortex heat-generator”.
S.V.Kozlov. Heat engineering tests of thermal hydrodynamic pumps.
“Energy” (journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0233-3619), #2’2009, p.29-35
This article concerns development of methods for heat engineering tests of hydrodynamic pumps. Two terms are widely used within the considered subject: efficiency and CP – coefficient of performance. Thus it is necessary to note that depending on a range of application these concepts have various meanings, and this developed practice cannot be cancelled.
Electric energy is converted in thermal hydrodynamic pumps to mechanical energy of rotation and then - to thermal energy of heat-transfer fluid (water). Though the term Efficiency is used with reference to thermal hydrodynamic pumps in some publications, we consider it incorrect in essence.
Till now is not clear exactly what processes occur with water in the activator of the thermal hydrodynamic pump, how it changes, there is no theoretical model of heating process confirmed in practice. It is possible to assert on the basis of practical experience that gas and water mix, but not water, comes from a heat-generator. And as the system is hydraulically closed, and air input does not occur, gas bubbles are the product of centrifugal force effecting on heat carrier flow. Water passing the heat supply system reverts to the original state under effecting of forces: gravitational, molecular interaction, etc.
As known, criterion of true is practice. And experience shows that thermal hydrodynamic pumps have good prospects of development, therefore the problems not solved today will be surely solved tomorrow.
A.V. Pinaev. Power efficiency of cavitation hydrothermal-generator.
“Electrician” (Ukraine), June 2008, p.24-28.
Typically coefficient of heat-generator performance ÊÅ means relation of gained (effectively) thermal energy or power respectively to the consumed electric power or power without taking into account working medium energy-release. Therefore ÊÅ> 1 is possible unlike Efficiency, at which calculation all system thermodynamic variables are known.
Use of the concept “coefficient of performance” is a reasonable compulsory measure in research and the description of unknown phenomenons or objects.
Ju.S.Potapov, L.P.Fominskiy, S.Ju.Potapov. Energy of rotation, Kishinev, 2001, p.382
According to the theory of motion, as water flow is spinning up, 2J of water internal energy per a Joule of energy consumed by the pump for water spinning up must be generated in a vortex heat-generator as radiation or heat.
Vortex heat-generator does non use the heat, reserved in initial water, but other water internal energy, for example energy of intermolecular bond, interatomic and subatomic bonds and even intranuclear bond, is transformed into heat.
Vlasov V. N. Complexity and simplicity of our life - 8.
Operated power amplifiers are a basis of any Nature process.
The operated power amplifier is a base element of the fractally organized Universe. Using the operated power amplifier diagram and understanding that all Nature represents continuous flows of energy, substances and information it is possible to explain many present-day paradoxes.
The main thing is to see and define two energy flows in any device or process – operating (control flow) and operated one (supplied to the amplifier input) performing the basic work.
As a vivid example we would like to desirable an interesting device – thermal energy generator.
From positions of understanding of energy flows and the power amplifier clearly distinguish energy flow for control and an energy flow created and controlled as a result of water rotation in the generator. Electric energy in the electromotor is used maximum on 90%, and the energy flow knocked-out from water is used efficiently not on all 100%, and, but possibly on 30 or 50%. All laws of physics are observed in relation to each flow. It is important to understand that here we deal with a power amplifier realized by intellect of talented and possibly genius inventors.
We have the typical power amplifier where the power flow of an electric motor by means of the heat-generator specially designed and installed on the shaft of this electromotor operates more powerful (though short-term) energy flow gained from breakage (or creation) hydrogen bonds of water molecule-pairs.
If remember that there is own characteristic for rate of control flow and operated power for each power amplifier, some features of heat-generator operation, which mean that for certain electromotor power, design of the vortex chamber and the heating system there is a peak of power of created thermal energy, and the increase in electromotor power is not always accompanied by increase in power of a produced thermal flow, become clear.
Responses on S.V.Kozlov's article. “Energetics of Siberia”, # 1 (12) February 2007, p.11,12.
Almost all known Russian installations with KE> 1 are not energy sources, and only prototypes of such systems, which allow to save energy. The most known are water heating systems with KE> 1, including TS1 thermal hydrodynamic pumps mentioned in S.V.Kozlov's article. Their difference from standard water heating systems consists of two technical features. First, water flow on a certain section of the system in installations with KE> 1 is organized spirally, but not laminarly as in usual installations, and second, there is no water heater in such installation - water heats up by environmental energy and possibly, as noted above, by energy release in the water.
Despite absence of a heater the system water heats up to 95°C. Installations with water vortex motion allow to release KE> 1 only in case when a certain ratio between heat distributor dimensions, water pressure and spiral parameters of water movement is sufficient.
As installations have two energy sources: power supply giving energy electric motor operation, and physical vacuum giving energy for water heating, there is nothing surprising that their effectiveness ratio is KE> 1.
Akimov A.E., academician of RANS, D.P.M.,
Director of the International institute of theoretical and applied physics
(RANS - the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences
D.P.M. – doctor of physical and mathematical sciences)
Essentially more difficult physical and chemical processes occur in vortex heat-generators (VG) caused by cavitation, vortex, acoustical, electropulsing, electromagnetic, etc. dynamic processes, which power interacting with the environment essentially differs from simple thermal interacting proceed and consequently cannot be isolated by simple thermostatting in many respects. Physical and chemical properties of water influence, and very weak natural electromagnetic and biological fields are little-studied for the present.
Thereupon the S.V.Kozlov's article answered a right question on necessity of an objective estimation of VG power efficiency. Specialists developing and investigating various types of VGs consider that the estimation of VG power efficiency should be carried out recognizing that VG together with a heating system is an object not closed thermodynamically: on the one hand, intensively cooperating with the environment, and not by hear exchange only, on the other hand, having own internal energy source (for example water in which exothermic reactions connected with water decomposition occur in cavitation and vortex motion processes) .
D.E., professor MADI (STU),
Academician of RAC named after E.L. Tsiolkovskiy
(MADI – Moscow road institute
RAC – the Russian academy of cosmonautics)
Methods of heat engineering tests for thermal hydrodynamic pumps.
Before starting any discussion it is necessary to coordinate the terms, as each of the participants of discussion can use the same term for absolutely different phenomenons. Within the subjects considered in this article two terms are most widely interpreted: Efficiency (coefficient of efficiency) and CP (coefficient of performance). It is necessary to emphasize especially that depending on range of application these concepts have various meaning, and nobody can neither cancel nor prohibit this hands-on experience.
Practically everyone remembers the term “efficiency” from the school physics textbook, where it has been told that the greatest possible efficiency is gained in the direct thermodynamic Carnot cycle, and it cannot be above 1. But the majority do not remember any more that for inverse cycle Carnot used the term CP, which value is above 1 just by definition.
Technics development caused a necessity of comparison of characteristics of different by design but equal by purpose devices. Therefore the terms “efficiency and CP” have gained more wide usage (not only for devices operating by the Carnot cycle), their meaning has considerably changed in comparison with that S.Carnot put in these definitions. For example it is used at least 6 definitions for boiler-house efficiency:
1. Burning efficiency - quantity of fuel energy which is released at burning (approximately 93-95%);
2. Boiler-house efficiency - quantity of fuel energy which is effectively used, i.e. converted to another energy carrier medium (on 10-15% lower than burning efficiency);
3. Furnace technics efficiency – shows how burning and heat reception in a boiler-house effective (furnace technics efficiency and boiler-house efficiency are approximately equal);
4. Installation efficiency - ratio between total effective energy and total energy of installation efficiency. The total energy includes also “auxiliary energy”, for example: electric energy necessary for pumps operation in a boiler-house, ventilation, flues etc. Thus it will be on 1-5% lower than boiler-house efficiency.
5. System efficiency - expands system limits to:
- heat production with loss;
- heat distribution with loss in heating mains, etc;
- heat utilization.
6. Annual efficiency - basically matches boiler-house efficiency, but the average boiler-house efficiency for the whole year is calculated. The annual efficiency also includes periods with low level of burning, for example boiler-house start, etc.
Technology development has led to paradoxical situations, when efficiency > 1. For example according to State Standard 21563-93 condenser boilers have efficiency = 108-109% .
Electric energy is converted to mechanical energy of rotation in thermal hydrodynamic pumps (“vortex heat-generators”), and then to thermal energy of heating of heat-transfer fluid (water). Though  there are cases of use of the term of efficiency with reference to “vortex heat-generators” in some publications, we consider it incorrect in essence. In spite of the fact that we face water every second, it remains little-studied and conceals a lot of enigmas. For example water can have various structure and change it under external effecting even under the influence of human speech, has “memory”, etc. Ice has about seventy aggregate states, and the quantity of water states can achieve two thousand. Till now is not clear exactly what processes occur with water in the activator of the thermal hydrodynamic pump, how it changes, there is no theoretical model of heating process confirmed in practice [3, 4]. It is possible to assert on the basis of practical experience that gas and water mix, but not water, comes from a heat-generator. And as the system is hydraulically closed, and air input does not occur, gas bubbles are the product of centrifugal force effecting on heat carrier flow. Accumulated actual data allows to put forward a hypothesis that thermal hydrodynamic pumps are “energetically open” devices, i.e. they take energy from the outside. Water passing the heat supply system reverts to the original state under effecting of forces: gravitational, molecular interaction or other not known for the present.
The following facts testify in favor of the “energetical openness” hypothesis:
- Heat release process does not end in the activator, and continues in the pipeline of a heat supply system. During experiments it has been fixed, that the heat carrier temperature raises as moves away from the activator discharge connection. If the water “relaxation” process in the system did not end completely, then there was a sharp decrease in a heating gradient starting from the moment of “non-relaxed” mixes entry in the activator.
- After power cutoff the heat carrier temperature raises during some time . The time and value of heat carrier “postheating” depends on several factors: power of device, heat carrier volume in the system, temperatures of heat carrier at the moment of the device shut down, etc. It is possible to insist that this “postheating” is not connected with time lag of thermometers, but caused by continuation of the heat release process.
In this connection there are big technical and methodological complexities in definition of heating efficiency of thermal hydrodynamic pumps.
It is necessary to understand that there are two fundamentally different approaches to tests of thermal hydrodynamic pumps:
- confirmation of working capacity of a concrete product;
- calculation of nominal (certified) heating efficiency for concrete type of design.
A measurement procedure and composition of the test unit equipment will be different depending on an assigned task. The methods of working capacity confirmation are simple enough and proven, but there are no standard test methods for calculation of nominal (certified) heating efficiency of concrete type of design for now.
Working capacity of the thermal hydrodynamic pump can be checked most simply as follows: temperatures in inlet and outlet fittings of the activator are measured at the recommended volume of pumping specified in Table 1, where the installation capacity means electric motor installed capacity.
Depending on the heat carrier temperature on the inlet fitting and the pumping volume for one pass through the activator heat carrier heats up on 14 - 24°Ñ. Thus the lower the heat carrier temperature is in the activator inlet the less heating gradient is. If the measured gradient is in the set temperature range, the thermal hydrodynamic pump is considered serviceable.
Heat supply system large influence on the heat release process: hydroresistance in output maim, pumping speed, heat carrier volume in the system, length and branching of pipelines, etc. Therefore incorrectly designed circuit of a heat supply system and incorrectly selected modes can reduce heating efficiency of a “vortex heat-generator”, moreover completely break the heat release process.
For example, in October, 2007 it consumed 11.0kW-hour of electric power at electric motor installed capacity of 7.5kW at tests in the Lappeenranta Technological University (Finland). According its design heating efficiency was low. As a result of situation it was defined that the latch in the outlet main was practically closed for the purpose of decrease of pumping volume to increase the heating gradient. After opening the latch the power consumption decreased to 6.8kW-hour without essential decrease in the heating gradient.
Too large pumping volume (in 3-5 times above the recommended one) leads to “break” of the heat release process, the heating gradient sharply decreases.
Large volume of heat carrier in the system also reduces the system heating efficiency. While tests in Orel temperature in premises rose, when quantity of radiators – and consequently the water volume – was decreased. Practically optimum water volume in a system for TS1-055 is 0.5 – 1.0m3. Heat carrier in such volume can make 3-6 passes through the activator per hour.
Oxygen released from water in the course of operation reduces heat release and raises working pressure in a system, therefore must be constantly expelled from the system, and besides feeding the system with “fresh” water must be the minimum.
In case of problems in a heat supply system the method of heating gradient indication allows to check the installation working capacity fast and with the minimum expenses.
The manufacturer defines working capacity of each serial TS1 type thermal hydrodynamic pump by the following method:
1. Fill 400kg of water through funnel Â1 to the tank using a measuring vessel and commercial scale with error + 0.1kg.
2. Set pressure 0.3MPa using the circulating pump in the pressure water pipeline.
3. Upon reaching water temperature in the centre of its volume of 30 + 2°Ñ turn on stopwatch and measure the time interval Ò necessary for heating water in the hydraulic system of the test unit to 80 + 2°Ñ. Water mixing in the tank to prevent thermal stratification of water is provided by mounting of the inlet main fitting in the bottom part of the tank, and the delivery pipe fitting in the top part.
4. Shat down the electric motor and the circulating pump at water temperature of 80 + 2°Ñ. Discharge hot water from the tank through a drainage tube and funnel Â2 to the sewerage.
The test unit diagram is shown in Fig. 1, and its general view in Photo 1.
While conducting acceptance tests in the other commercial plant 1000kg of water is heated up from actual temperature of filling 10 - 17°Ñ to 80 + 2°Ñ, and the heating time is measured. The average heating time for 1000 kg of waters makes: 80-90 minutes – for TS1-055; 55-60 minutes – TS1-075, 45-55 minutes – TS1-090.
Such tests are quite enough for confirming of working capacity of a concrete product. However, design of the factory stand and the tests methods presented above do not allow to carry out heating efficiency calculation, a special certified test unit and other method are necessary for this purpose.
The tests method for calculation of nominal (certified) heating efficiency of a concrete type of design must consider the following basic points:
1. While starting the thermal hydrodynamic pump the electric motor require the raised power for initial spinup of the shaft, which has a large inertia moment, and overcoming of viscosity of non-heated heat carrier in the activator. After the thermal installation transfers to the operating mode, the power consumption drops on 6-10%. Therefore measurement of parameters must be conducted at the set operating mode.
2. If the temperature of heat carrier delivered to the activator is not essential for confirmation of working capacity, the water temperature must be in the range 60 + 10°C in the tests intended for calculation of nominal (certified) heating efficiency. It is caused by the following reasons:
- it is a real range of operational temperatures for intrabuilding heating systems;
- as practice shows, water heating in different temperature range require different quantity of energy. Water heating to +20°C requires the highest power inputs, power inputs for heating are the minimum at water temperature of +63°C.
Therefore all tests conducted in the range of relatively low reheat temperature of water, will obviously give underrated results of heating efficiency.
3. The account of produced energy must not be made before the power cutoff, but before the moment when heat carrier achieves the maximum temperature.
4. While heating efficiency calculation it is necessary to consider stand heat loss in the course of conducting the tests. Professor, D.E., Nikitskiy V.P. has offered an original method for account of this heat loss, which will be published in the near future.
5. Presence in the system of water-gas-vacuum mix with much smaller density than water is a reason that water consumption indicators can not measure real heat carrier consumption. Therefore:
- consumption indicators must be installed directly ahead of the activator inlet fitting, and a “damper” providing full “relaxation” of heat carrier must be mounted ahead of consumption indicators;
- some consumption indicators with different methods of measurement must be installed approximately with each other, and it is necessary to compare their indications;
- use indications of consumption indicators as help information only.
Depending on the assigned task, having the same actual data obtained during an experiment with not difficult manipulations it is possible to make opposite conclusions. Therefore opponents of “vortex heat-generators” deliberately conduct tests under conditions considerably worst than the optimum, do not take into account additional factors such as “postheating” and stand heat loss, and if get good result anyway, do not recognize it [9,10].
The general view of typical heat supply station is shown in Photo 2.
Practitioners have little interest in academic disputes concerning values of efficiency and CP. They are more interested in the economy, which will be brought by transfer to the heat supply by means of thermal hydrodynamic pumps. Comparison of heat supply costs, which we conducted on the basis of six-years operating experience, show that with thermal hydrodynamic pumps they are lower in 3-5 times than with heating coil and electrode boilers, in 8-10 times than diesel, and in 3-5 times than centralized heating .
For the integrated selection of power of the thermal installations applied to heating Construction regulations specify - 1kW delivered thermal energy per 10sq.m of heated area. For selection of power of TS1 thermal hydrodynamic pump this specification is 1kW of the pump electric motor installed capacity per 30sq.m of heated area. Consumed electric power of the electric motor decreases on 10-15% in typical operation. Proceeding from the integrated specification thermal installations must heat conditional typical (matching the requirements of Construction regulations) residential, household, cultural-entertaining premises, premises of industrial-economic purposes, etc., of volume: TS1-055 – 5180m3, TS1-075 – 7060m3, TS1-090 – 8450m3, TS1-110 – 10200m3 (marking indicates the electric motor power).
Necessary temperature mode can be maintained in heated premises. For example, 20 - 22°C for living spaces, 15 - 18°C – industrial spaces, 8 - 12°C – warehouse. Temperature mode regulating is made by setting the heat carrier temperature range. As heat carrier heats up to the set maximum temperature the thermal hydrodynamic pump turns off, as heat carrier cools to the minimum set temperature – turns on. Heating system generates exactly as much thermal energy as much heat loss of a heated object. During winter periods the operating time is more and less for autumn-spring periods. For the average heating season heating system operates 25-30% of time. Therefore we apply factor Koper. = 0.3 to integrated calculation of financial expenditure for heating.
Automatics allow to make change-over of a temperature mode within a minute. In the evening a duty engineer can lower temperature in premises and before the beginning of working day set comfortable temperature in premises again. It allows additionally lower heating cost.
For the integrated selection calculation is conducted by the minimum possible temperature. As the average climatic temperature for a heating season is higher, real 1kW heats up considerably larger volume. Some actual data is presented in Table 2.
Note: the table is made according to the users’ references presented on the website: http://www.ratron.su, section “Products” / “References”.
The general view of the pilot BBHSS-55 intended in this concrete case for air heating of derricks is shown in Photo 2. A heat thermal hydrodynamic pump TS1-055 with the installed electric motor power of 55kW, heating heat-transfer fluid and heat removing air-heating assembly on the basis of hot-air heater KSk are mounted in BBHSS-55. Heat carrier volume in the system is 70 liters. Outdoor air passing the hot-air heater heats up to temperature of +70°C and is discharged under pressure to the heated premises.
Originally according to the customer’s requirements air-heating assembly AO2-10 with heat capacity of 116kW, i.e. with cooling in 2.1 times more than the TS1-055 installed electric power was mounted in BBHSS-55. At tests heat-transfer fluid heated up to the maximum temperature + 95°C for 5 minutes then there was automatic shutdown of TS1-055. For the next 5 minutes AO2-10 removed the produced heat downgrading temperature of the heat-transfer fluid to +70°C, TS1-055 switched on. The process repeated in 5 minutes. Such frequency of turning on/off is not allowed for a powerful electric motor, therefore the solution to change AO2-10 for a more powerful AO2-20 assembly with heat capacity of 220.4kW that four times more than the electric motor installed capacity of the thermal hydrodynamic pump was accepted. In the course of acceptance tests at ambient temperature - 2°C installation worked for 17 minutes from a cold condition till shut down. At repeated starts-up heating up to the maximum temperature occurred for 13 minutes that testifies about incomplete heat removal. Now our company is conducting full-scale tests of the pilot mobile BBHSS-55 for heating derricks. Perfection of BBHSS proceeds, however already gained experience shows its high efficiency.
Practice is a criterion of true. And practice shows that thermal hydrodynamic pumps have good prospects of development. Therefore the problems, which have been not solved today, will be surely solved tomorrow..
1. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. «Ìîæåò ëè ÊÏÄ «âèõðåâîãî òåïëîãåíåðàòîðà» áûòü áîëüøå åäèíèöû?»
- «Ýíåðãî Info», ¹ 4, àïðåëü 2007 ã, ñòð. 86-88.;
- «Ýíåðãåòèêà Ñèáèðè», ¹ 2 (13) àïðåëü, 2007 ã., ñòð.11-15.
2. Ñ. Êàøíèöêèé «Íàñ ñîãðååò âàêóóì». «Àðãóìåíòû è Ôàêòû», ¹ 8 (1321), 2006 ã., ñòð. 49.
3. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. «Íàóêîé íå äîêàçàíî». «Êîììóíàëüíûé êîìïëåêñ Ðîññèè», ¹ 7 (25), èþëü 2006 ã., ñòð. 70-73.
4. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. «Äëÿ òåõ, êòî õî÷åò çíàòü, ÷òî òàêîå «âèõðåâîé òåïëîãåíåðàòîð». «Ýíåðãåòèêà Ñèáèðè», ¹ 3(8), èþíü 2006 ã., ñòð. 32-34.
5. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. Ïðîáëåìû âûáîðà ñîâðåìåííîé ñèñòåìû òåïëîñíàáæåíèÿ. «Ýíåðãåòèêà Òàòàðñòàíà», ¹ 2(6) 2007 ã., ñòð. 38-46.
6. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. Î íåîáõîäèìîñòè ñåðòèôèêàöèè «âèõðåâûõ òåïëîãåíåðàòîðîâ». «Ñòàíäàðòû è êà÷åñòâî», ¹ 5, ìàé 2007 ã., ñòð. 55.
7. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. Èííîâàöèîííûå òåõíîëîãèè îòîïëåíèÿ – òåïëîâûå ãèäðîäèíàìè÷åñêèå íàñîñû. «ÒåõíîÌèð», ¹ 3 (33), 207 ã., ñòð. 24-26.
8. Ñ.Â. Êîçëîâ. Îñíîâíûå ïðèíöèïû âûáîðà ñèñòåìû òåïëîñíàáæåíèÿ. «Êîììóíàëüùèê», ¹ 3 ìàðò, 2007 ã., ñòð. 54-60.
Thermal hydrodynamic pumps. Summary of 2008.
There is a saying: as you meet a New Year as you pass it. The “Teplo XXI veka” group of companies met 2008 with the Gold “Quality mark of XXI century” of the “All-Russia mark. Quality mark of XXI century” competition. Our year has passed by this sign, under the mark of quality improvement of TS1 thermal hydrodynamic pumps.
TS1 type thermal hydrodynamic pumps (“vortex heat-generators”) are modern, high-efficiency, self-contained, energy-saving, ecologically friendly heating, heat supply and hot water supply systems. They are intended for:
- autonomous heating residential, office, sport, industrial and storage buildings, greenhouse, etc;
- heating of water for: household and technological purposes, bathhouses, laundries, pools, etc.
Energy carrier costs with thermal hydrodynamic pumps are lower on 15%, and maintenance costs for heating, heat supply and HWS much lower than with gas-fired boilers. Thermal hydrodynamic pumps are fire- and explosion-proof, do not require permission of the Federal service on ecological, technological and atomic supervision (letter of Administration of state power supervision ref. # 10-05/2845 of September 26, 2007), Maintenance of thermal installations with electric power upto 100kW is carried out without a license (Federal law # 28-FZ of 03.04.96). They are simple in maintenance, an electrician without special training with minimum operational experience can serve them.
The first installations were commissioned in 2003/2004 heating season. Now more than four hundred TS1 installations are operated in Russian regions, near and far abroad. Each heating season bring resource operational experience applied for further perfection of the equipment.
Thermal hydrodynamic pumps can work both in stationary individual heat supply stations (IHSS) and in mobile building block heat supply stations (BBHSS). General view of BBHSS-55 is shown in Photo 1.
The first BBHSS trial operation started in 2007/2008 heating season. BBHSS has proved the best performance that mach interested the users and converted to signing supply contracts.
The main principle of development: the product resource designed in the TS1 type thermal hydrodynamic pump – taking into account operation in the Russian conditions – must be defined by resource of a serial electric motor, i.e. must be at least 10-12 years. Therefore the design was not optimized on metal consumption, has bearing units with a large safety factor, etc.
The special attention has been given to selection of reliable components. 100% incoming control has been accepted due to poor quality of domestic bearings and considerable quantity of fakes of import bearings.
After technical analysis of sealing units designs the basic solution to refuse obsolete stuffing box seals and to use end seals of the English “John Crane” company mostly applied in oil and pump equipment was accepted. As our company has concluded the long-term contract with the official representative of the “John Crane” company in Russia that ensures authenticity and quality of the sealings, there is no necessity to accept cheaper analogues released by little-known Russian or Chinese manufacturers.
There is a settled opinion that quality of domestic production considerably concedes to the import one. It is true just in part. TS1s are completed with common industrial induction motors of State Standard 183-74, State Standard R51689-2000, 380/660V, 3000rpm, 55, 75, 90 and 110kW, U2 climatic modification, on lugs (IM 1001). Even without that fact that import motors are more expensive in two-three times than domestic ones there are two more reasons by which use of import electric motors is not planed.
The first reason: import motors have a service factor equal to 1 while domestic ones have service factor 1.1-1.15. Service factor (State Standard R 51689-2000 “Induction motors”, clause 3.7.) is an acceptable overloading at the rated voltage and frequency. Thus winding overheating must not excess the acceptable temperature for this class of insulation heat resistance more than on 10%. Import motors fail fast due to poor quality of power supply often met in domestic service conditions.
The second reason is maintainability. As our equipment is supplied to all regions of Russia, in case of breakage in any most remote place it is necessary to replace or repair the failed element in the minimum terms. If a stock of repair parts is limited in bearings and end seals, we can have them in our warehouse and send under the first demand of users, but it is impossible for electric motors. Practically all trading organizations have no high power electric motors (over 55kW) in warehouses. Deliveries are made “under the order”, delivery term can achieve 60 days. Shutdown of the heating equipment for such a long term is unacceptable in most cases. Domestic electric motors can be repaired fast practically everywhere, but motors of foreign manufactures are not maintainable.
Electric motors of the necessary nomenclature are made in the CIS countries by VEMZ (Vladimir), ELDIN (Yaroslavl) and “Novokahovskiy electroengineering works” (Ukraine) factories. However we need not a supplier only, but a partner, as poor-quality electric motors can cause a considerable damage to our products reputation. Therefore before choosing a manufacturer of electric motors they were offered to conduct joint tests of thermal hydrodynamic pumps and electric motors to identify operating characteristics of electric motors under real loading. Such tests allow to definitively coordinate technical data of a pump, control unit and electric motor and contradict the unreasonable assumption that faults of electric motors is connected with thermal hydrodynamic pumps design. Tests of electric motors of different manufacturers were consumed under the uniform program and methods on the basis of commercial manufacturer of thermal hydrodynamic pumps and on our skilled-experimental base.
Tests together with the ELDIN factory (Yaroslavl) were conducted in May-June, 2008. The following conclusions were drawn by the test results:
1. The operational documentation of thermal hydrodynamic pumps contains all necessary requirements to regular maintenance of the electric motor. In case of observance of TU 3631-001-78515751-2007 and TS1-055/075/090/110-00.000 RE requirements the electric motor must not fail for a warranty period.
2. The heat-generators manufacturing and test process in the thermal hydrodynamic pumps manufacturing plant does not create preconditions to electric motors faults.
3. During operation parts of thermal hydrodynamic pumps do not render unacceptable effects (vibrations, other mechanical loadings, excess of operating currents above nominal value in regular mode, etc.) which can cause failure of the electric motor for a warranty period.
4. The ESTS1 control unit does not render negative impact on the electric motor. It reduces starting loadings that provides smaller deterioration of electric motors.
5. TS1-055, TS1-075 and TS1-090 thermal hydrodynamic pumps with electric motors manufactured by the OAO “ELDIN” and control units manufactured by the OOO “Effective systems” are mechanically interfaced by mechanical and electric parts. Manufacturers accept the equipment to operate as a complex.
During joint tests with the “Energodrive” company conducted in August, 2008, were revealed that 7AI250S2 electric motors with 75 kW installed capacity are compatible by the characteristics to TS1-075 thermal hydrodynamic pumps, and 7AI225Ì2 electric motors with 55kW installed capacity are not compatible to TS1-055. The tests conducted with electric motors of some other manufacturers showed their unfitness for joint operation. Those types of electric motors, which failed the test, are not installed on the thermal hydrodynamic pumps.
Quality of TS1 type thermal hydrodynamic pumps is annually certified by Certificates conformity: #ROSS RU.AYa46.V57997 (2007), #ROSS RU.AYa46.V12043 (2008). All materials applied in the design and components are certificated. The OAO “ELDIN”, manufacturer of electric motors, presents the Declaration of conformity. The control unit manufactured by the OOO “Effective systems”, with which the thermal hydrodynamic pump is completed, also has Certificate of conformity #ROSS RU.AYu64.V13113.
The “Teplo XXI veka” company makes to itself high demands on maintenance of the output quality and execution of contractual obligations. But self-estimation is one matter, and estimation of experts is another matter. Therefore participation in the competition on including in the “Reliable enterprises of Moscow” catalogue is planned in 2009. The First step in this direction is already made, the Moscow Chamber of Commerce and Industry accepted the company in August, 2008.
The high-efficient method of water heating with thermal hydrodynamic pumps is rather new. Now there are no scientifically proved methods of design calculation and optimization. However for some reason we are reproached in absence of the theory, but not scientists. Millions of viewers of the «Ideas factory” TV-program, in which sales manager V.A.Kim participated and won the “Vision of the future” nomination, heard such unfair reproaches. Therefore besides the basic industrial activity we have to be engaged in scientific research. Within the “Power engineering 2008: innovations, solutions, prospects” International scientific and technical conference , timed to the fortieth anniversary of the Kazan State Power University, the “Round table on “vortex heat power engineering” was conducted on September 16, 2008. Organizers of the event are Administration KGEU, Editorial board of the “Energetics of Tatarstan” journal and the “Teplo XXI veka” company. KGEU Pro-rector on scientific work of J.V.Vankov was a Chairman of the meeting. None of the participants of the “round table” doubts that thermal hydrodynamic pumps produce thermal energy effectively. Many specialists faced with the problem of equipment designing without the theory. Usually theoretical substantiation appears after acquisition of development and maintenance experience, and then methods of design calculation are created. Therefore anybody of the participants in debate did not suggest to stop manufacture of thermal hydrodynamic pumps till the theory to be developed.
However, it would be incorrect to think that our company is “a stability island” in the conditions of the burst global financial crisis. The Moscow Department of science and the industrial policy included the “Hydrodynamic thermal pump” theme in the plan of applied scientific researches and designs in interests of Moscow for 2008, but funds were not allocated due to the financial crisis. The mortgage crisis occurred in summer 2008 in Kazakhstan led to the situation when funds for disbursement the signed contract on supply of hundred installations “freezed” in the Kazakh bank and were not transferred to our account. Both economic and political reasons impede the export. As our dealers informed us, authorities of the Ukraine have instructed local officials not to purchase the Russian equipment that have complicated the situation for us and also for many factories.
But whatever occurs in the world, everyone needs heat in the winter, therefore orders for the equipment arrive to us both from Russian and from foreign users. This year export supplies to South Korea and Japan have continued, the first party of thermal hydrodynamic pumps has been sent to Mongolia. It is necessary to consider money under conditions of crisis. As our equipment is energy-saving, number of our clients will be increasing.
The “Teplo XXI veka” company ended 2008 year as it practically began that once again proved the saying. Efforts on improvement of the output quality and reliability have been appreciated. In November, 2008 our company was awarded with a gold medal “Guaranty of quality and safety” of the “National safety” competition, and in December – with a platinum medal “Quality mark of XXI century” of the “National glory” competition.
Photo 2. Medals: “Quality mark of XXI century” and “Guaranty of quality and safety””
Despite considerable successes we are not going to stop at the achieved. We will continue to improve the quality control, perfection of design and lineup expansion.